At a Glance
A new study shows that high doses of vitamin D supplementation in African American adults may be needed to meet even minimal recommended blood levels.
Read more about this research below.
The African American population is known to have higher rates of cardiovascular disease and cancer than other American adults. It has been proposed that this may be due in part to lower circulating vitamin D levels in this population.
In a recent study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, researchers sought to determine the dose-response relation between vitamin D supplementation and subsequent blood levels of vitamin D.
The study was conducted in Boston, MA and included 328 African American adults who were enrolled over three winters from 2007 to 2010. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four supplement groups taking either a placebo or 1,000 IU, 2000 IU, or 4000 IU of vitamin D daily. Diet history and socioeconomic information was collected from all subjects, and blood samples were collected at the beginning and again at 3 and 6 months.
At the beginning of the study, the average vitamin D level of each group was below the levels recommended by the Institute of Medicine (20ng/mL). After three months of supplementation the vitamin D level in the placebo group fell from 15.1ng/mL to 13.7 ng/mL, while the groups supplemented with 1,000 IU, 2,000 IU and 4,000 IU rose to 29.7 ng/mL, 34.8 ng/mL and 45.9 ng/mL respectively. The dose required to increase blood vitamin D levels to 20ng/mL in more than 97.5% of the subjects was estimated to be 1,640 IU. Supplementation with 4,000 IU was needed to reach vitamin D levels of at least 33 ng/mL in more than 80% of the subjects.
In this study of African American adults, supplementation with 4,000 IU per day was needed to achieve vitamin D concentrations shown in observational studies to reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. High risk populations living in Northern climates should be encouraged to discuss vitamin D supplementation with their health care professional.
Kimmie Ng et al. Dose response to vitamin D supplementation in African Americans: results of a 4-arm, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr March 2014 vol. 99 no. 3 587-598.
At a Glance
The results of a new meta-analysis shows that long-term supplementation with omega-3s reduce blood markers of inflammation and may reduce the risk of chronic inflammatory-related diseases.
Read more about this research below.
Inflammation is known to play a role in numerous chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity-related diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Omega-3 fatty acids have often been linked to benefits regarding these conditions, likely due to their anti-inflammatory function.
In a recent meta-analysis published in the online journal PLoS One, scientists reviewed the literature to determine the effect of marine-derived omega-3s on blood levels of several markers of inflammation.
The meta-analysis included 4,601 participants from 68 randomized, controlled trials of healthy subjects, subjects with chronic autoimmune diseases, and subjects with chronic non-autoimmune diseases (ie. cardiovascular disease). Fasting blood levels of the inflammatory markers TNF-a (tumor necrosis factor-alpha), IL-6 (interleukin-6) and CRP (C-reactive protein) were compiled and analyzed. Researchers also separated studies using omega-3s from supplementation as active treatment with those using omega-3s from dietary intake (fish) and included them into different meta-analyses.
A combined analysis of all study subjects revealed a significant link between omega-3 supplementation and decreased blood levels of CRP and IL-6. Among the subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease, a longer duration of supplementation related to an even greater reduction in blood levels of IL-6 and TNF-a. A similar finding was observed for IL-6 among healthy subjects. Higher dietary intake of omega-3s did result in lower IL-6 levels, but fish intake alone (without supplementation) did not appear to lower CRP or TNF-a. The benefits of omega-3 supplementation were also more significant in non-obese subjects (BMI <30), particularly in the chronic non-autoimmune disease group.
The results of this study confirm that long-term supplementation of omega-3s from fish oil can effectively lower inflammatory markers and may help reduce the risk of chronic inflammation.
Li K, Huang T, Zheng J, Wu K, Li D (2014) Effect of Marine-Derived n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin 6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor a: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 9(2): e88103. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088103
Everybody in the world of self-development agrees on one simple thing:
Meditation is good!
The benefits are truly enormous: less stress, greater relaxation levels, improved mind power, more energy, a stronger immune system, self-enlightenment, less required sleep, and more.
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Let's be honest: in the modern world, people just don't have TIME.
Until now, that is.
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By listening to these CDs each day, you can quickly begin enjoying the many great benefits of meditation -- yet without the need for endless years of strict practice.
Meditation for cheats? Pah -- I hope so!
The problem, however, is that most brainwave meditation CDs simply don't work.
I've tried Holosync, Optimindzation, Hemi-Sync, and many others. Yes, the science behind the technology is infallible. However, each of these uses boring-sounding audio recordings, and require at least one hour listening a day. Many, especially Holosync, also cost thousands to complete the course, and require many years of practice. Technically, they also only employ one mode of brainwave entrainment -- a fatal error in the world of brainwave technology.
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BrainEv is a 6-CD system that contains arguably the most beautiful audio recordings the self-development world has ever heard. It only requires 30 minutes of listening each day, which you can do as you fall asleep, or by waking up 30 minutes earlier than normal -- meaning it doesn't impact on your hectic schedule. You also only need to listen 6 times a week. The entire program also costs just a fraction of its competitors.
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At a Glance
A new study has found that higher omega-3 blood levels are associated with a larger overall brain volume in elderly women.
Read more about this research below.
Normal aging results in overall brain atrophy, or shrinkage. In a new study published online in the journal Neurology, scientists looked at the possible association between higher levels omega-3 fatty acids and greater brain volume in aging adults.
The study included 1,111 women aged 65 to 80 enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken to analyze omega-3 fatty acid (EPA and DHA) levels. On an average of 8 years later, magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) was conducted to measure brain volumes. In addition to total brain volume, several specific regions of the brain were also measured. Adjustments were made for factors such as hormone therapy, time since randomization, demographics, and cerebral and cardiovascular disease risk.
In fully adjusted models, a greater blood volume of EPA and DHA was correlated with a larger brain volume, and even more specifically with greater hippocampal volume in these postmenopausal women. The hippocampus is an area of the brain involved with cognition and learning. This effect on brain volume is thought to be the equivalent of delaying the normal age-related loss of brain cells by one to two years.
The results of this study suggest that higher omega-3 fatty acid levels achieved through diet or supplementation may reduce normal brain atrophy and help delay cognitive aging and dementia.
Pottala JV et al. Higher RBC EPA + DHA corresponds with larger total brain and hippocampal volumes: WHIMS-MRI Study. Neurology. 2014 Jan 22. [Epub ahead of print]
Work at home in Network Marketing , love to hike in the mountains ,skiing and riding my mountain bike . Love to garden and grow different vegetables . Also do indoor gardening ! Did work in manufacturing for 25 yrs but they close the plant .